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    Questions - EngineersHub
    Post a Question
    Question
    Anvesh Kanchibhotla
    1 week ago
    1 Answer(s) posted Write an answer 110
    Answer
    Read Mode
    Answer posted by Deepa
    1 week ago

    C supports a number of string handling functions. All of these built-in functions are aimed at performing various operations on strings are in the header file string.in.

    (i).strlen( )

    This function is used to find the length of the string excluding the NULL character. In other words, this function is used to cout the number of character in a string. Its syntax is as follows:

                                                                            Int strlen(string);

     Example: char str1[ ]="WELLCOME";

                       int n;

                       n =strlen(str1);

    /* A program to caculate length of string by using stren() function */

    #include<stdio.h>

    main()

    {

    char string1[50];

    int length;

    printf("\n Enter any string:");

    gets(string1);

    length=strlen(string1);

    printf("\n The length of string=%d",length);

    }

    (ii). strcpy( )

    This function is used to copy one string to  the other. Its syntax is as follows:

                                                                     strcpy(strings1,strings2);

    Where string1 and string2 are one -dimmensional character arrays.

                               This function copies the content of strings2 to string1.

                           E.g.,string1 contains master and string2 contains madam, then string1 holds madam after execution of strcpy (string1,string2) function.

    Example :         char str1[ ] ="WELLCOME";

                               char str2[ ]="HELLO";

                                strcpy(str1,str2);

    /* A program to copy one string to another using strcpy( ) function */

        #include<stdio.h>

        #include<string.h>

        main( )

        {

        char string1[30],string2[30];

        printf("\n Enter first string:");

         gets(string1);

         printf("\n Enter second string:");

         gets(string2)

         strcpy(string1,string2);

         printf("\n first string=%s",string1);

         printf("\n second string=%s",string2);

    }

     (iii).strcmp( )

       This function compares two stings characters by character b(ASCII comparison) and returns one

    of three values {-1,0,1}. The umeric difference is'0' if string are equal. If it is negative string1 is alphabitically above string2.. If it is positive string2 is alphabetically above string1.

                                 Its syntax is as follows:

                                                                                            int strcmp(string1,string2);

    Example:     char str1[ ]="ROM";

                          char str2[ ]="RAM";

                          strcmp(str1,str2);

                           (or)

                            strcmo("ROM","RAM");

    /* a program to compare two strings using strcmp() function */

    #incudestdio.h>

    #include<string.h>

    main()

    {

    char string1[30],string2[15];

    int x;

    prinf(""\n Enter first string:");

    gets(string1);

    printf("\n Enter seond string:");

    gets(strings2);

    x= strcmp(string1,string2);

    if(x==0)

    printf("\nBoth strings are equal");

    else if(x>0)

    printf("\n first string is bigger");

    else

    printf("\n second  string is bigger");

    }

    (iv). strcat ( )

    This fuction is used to concatenate two strings. i.e.,it appends one string at the end of the specified string.Its syntax as follows:

                                                                    strcat(string1,string2);

    where string1 and string2 are one-dimensional character arrays.

                                            This  function joins two strings together. In other words, its adds the string2 to string1 and the strings1 contains  the concatenatted string. E.g.,string1 contains prog and string2 contains  ram , then string1 holds program after execution of  the strcat( ) function. 

                                Example:    char str1[10] = "VERY";

                                                     char str2[5] = "GOOD";

                                                     strcat(str1,str2);

    /* A program to concatenate one string with another using stracat( ) function */

    #include<strdio.h>

    #include<string.h>

    main( )

    char string1[30],string2[15];

    printf("\n Enter first string:");

    gets(string1);

    printf("\n Enter second string:");

    gets(strings2);

    strcat(string1,string2);

    printf("\n concatenated string=%s",string1);

    }

    4
    Question
    Anandam Lokesh
    1 week ago
    1 Answer(s) posted Write an answer 114
    Answer
    Read Mode
    Answer posted by Venu Gopal reddy Seelam
    1 week ago

    /* ADDITION OF TWO MATRICES*/

    #include<stdio.h>

    #include<conio.h>

    #include<process.h>

    void main( )

    {

    int a[10][10],b[10][10],c[10][10];

    int i,j,m,n,p,q;

    printf("\n Enter the size of matrix A:");

    scanf("%d%d",&m,&n);

    printf("\n Enter the size of Matrix B:");

    scanf("%d%d",&p,&q);

    if(m!=p||n!=q)

           {

                printf("Matrix addition not possible.");

                 exit(0);

           }

    printf(" Enter the matrix B values:\n");

    for(i=0;i<m;i )

                          for(j=0;j<n;j )

                          scanf("%d",&a[i][j]);

    print("Enter the Matrix B values:\n");

    for(i=0;i<p;i )

                 for(j=0;j<n;j )

                  c[i][j]=a[i][j] b[i][j];

    printf("\n The Matrix A is \n");

    for(i=0;i<m;i )

                    {

                        for(j=0;j<n;j )

                        printf('%d",a[i][j]);

                        print("\n");

                     }

    printf("\n The Martix B is\n");

    for(i=0;i<p;i )

                {

                for(j=0;j<q;b[i][j]);

                printf("%d",b[i][j]);

                printf("\n");

                }

    printf("\n The  Output Matrix C is\n");

    for(i=0;i<m;i )

                 {

                 for(j=0;j<n;j )

                 printf("%d",c[i][j]);

                 printf("\n");

                 }

    }

    OUTPUT :

           Enter the size of Matrix A:2

            3

           Enter the size of Matrix B:2

            3

            Enter the matrix A values:

             1

             2

             3

             4

             5

             6

              Enter the Matrix B values:

              6

              5

              4

              3

              2

              1

     The Matrix A is

    1 2 3

    4 5 6

    The matrix B is

    6 5 4

    3 2 1

    The Output Matrix C is

    7 7 7

    7 7 7

    41
    Question
    Ruchitha
    1 week ago
    1 Answer(s) posted Write an answer 92
    Answer
    Read Mode
    Answer posted by Vinod Raj
    1 week ago

    Array:-

    An array is defined as an ordered set of similar data items. All the data items of an array are stored in consecutive memory locations in RAM. The elements of an array are of same data type and each item can be accessed using the same name.

    Declaration of an array:-

    We know that all the variables are declared before they are used in the program. Similarly, an array must be declared before it is used. During declaration, the size of the array has to be specified. The size used during declaration of the array informs the compiler to allocate and reserve the specified memory locations.

    Syntax:- data_type array_name[n];

    where, n is the number of data items (or) index(or) dimension.

    0 to (n-1) is the range of array.

    Ex: int a[5];

              float x[10];

    Initialization of Arrays:-

    The different types of initializing arrays:

    1. At Compile time

    (i) Initializing all specified memory locations.

    (ii) Partial array initialization

    (iii) Initialization without size.

    (iv) String initialization.

    2. At Run Time

    1. Compile Time Initialization:  We can initialize the elements of arrays in the same way as the ordinary variables when they are declared. The general form of initialization of arrays is 

    type array-name[size]={ list of values};

    (i) Initializing all specified memory locations:- Arrays can be initialized at the time of declaration when their initial values are known in advance. Array elements can be initialized with data items of type int, char etc.

    Ex:- int a[5]={10,15,1,3,20};

    During compilation, 5 contiguous memory locations are reserved by the compiler for the variable a and all these locations are initialized as shown in figure.

    Fig: Initialization of int Arrays

    Ex:- int a[3]={9,2,4,5,6}; //error: no. of initial vales are more than the size of array.

    (ii) Partial array initialization:- Partial array initialization is possible in c language. If the number of values to be initialized is less than the size of the array, then the elements will be initialized to zero automatically. 

    Ex:- int a[5]={10,15};

    Even though compiler allocates 5 memory locations, using this declaration statement; the compiler initializes first two locations with 10 and 15, the next set of memory locations are automatically initialized to 0's by compiler as shown in figure.

    Fig: Partial Array Initialization

    Initialization with all zeros:-

    Ex:- int a[5]={0};

    (iii) Initialization without size:-

    Consider the declaration along with the initialization.

    Ex:- char b[]={'C','O','M','P','U','T','E','R'};

    In this declaration, eventhough we have not specified exact number of elements to be used in array b, the array size will be set of the total number of initial values specified. So, the array size will be set to 8 automatically. The array b is initialized as shown in figure.

    Fig: Initialization without size

    Ex:- int ch[]={1,0,3,5} // array size is 4

    (iv) Array initialization with a string: -Consider the declaration with string initialization.

    Ex:- char b[]="COMPUTER";

    The array b is initialized as shown in figure.

    Fig: Array Initialized with a String

    Even though the string "COMPUTER" contains 8 characters, because it is a string, it always ends with null character. So, the array size is 9 bytes (i.e., string length 1 byte for null character).

    Ex:-                                                                              char b[9]="COMPUTER"; // correct

    char b[8]="COMPUTER"; // wrong

    2. Run Time Initialization

    An array can be explicitly initialized at run time. This approach is usually applied for initializing large arrays.

    Ex:- scanf can be used to initialize an array.

    int x[3];

    scanf(%u201C%d%d%d%u201D,&x[0],&x[1],&x[2]);

    The above statements will initialize array elements with the values entered through the key board.

    (Or)

    for(i=0;i<100;i=i 1)

    {

    if(i<50)

    sum[i]=0.0;

    else

    sum[i]=1.0;

    }

    The first 50 elements of the array sum are initialized to 0 while the remaining 50 are initialized to 1.0 at run time.

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